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What is the Res Populi Club?

  • The Res Populi Club is a civic-political organisation that promotes the values and organizational principles of classical republicanism.
  • The first Res Populi Club was founded in Spain in 2018.
  • It has a federal structure: there will be a Res Populi Club in each country, which will be formed by Res Populi Clubs at three levels (villages or neighbourhoods, cities, and regions) and will be integrated in a federation of Res Populi Clubs at three levels (world sub-region, world region and world).

What is classical republicanism?

  • Classical republicanism is a tradition of political thought that originated in Antiquity and that, ever since, has exerted a powerful influence on the development of political ideas.
  • Theorists of classical republicanism include: Aristotle, Polybius, Cicero, Machiavelli, La Boétie, Harrington, Spinoza, Rousseau, Adam Smith, Kant, Jefferson, Madison, Tocqueville, Hannah Arendt and many others at the present time.

Liberty as absence of domination; negative and positive liberty

  • Classical republicanism opposes any form of political domination by one individual or a group and aims to institute liberty.
  • It understands liberty both as non-interference by public officials in the private affairs of citizens (negative liberty) and as the right of citizens to decide on public affairs on a regular basis (positive liberty).

Mixed Constitution

  • It maintains that representation must be combined with direct participation of citizens in decision-making in public affairs in accordance with a balanced distribution of competences between elected representatives and the citizens (mixed constitution).

City, federalism; classical cosmopolitanism; classical capitalism

  • It considers the city as the basic political unit and upholds federalism – and the principle of subsidiarity – as the method of integration of cities into regions, states and unions of states.
  • It is inseparable of classical cosmopolitanism, which opposes walls and barriers of any kind between nations and aims to establish international cities where people of different nations may live together.
  • In economics, it is linked to classical capitalism, which defends perfect competition and opposes monopolies and oligopolies.

Organizational principles: the “formula of liberty”

  • To realize its goals, classical republicanism defends, among others, the following key organizational principles:
    1. Annual rotation of executive officers
    2. Separation of powers
    3. Direct democracy
  • These principles constitute the “formula of liberty”.



1) Annual rotation of executive officers

  • The annual rotation of executive officers is indispensable to prevent concentration of power in the hands of one individual.
  • It is linked to collegiality of each office and to the performance of offices according to a predefined sequential order (cursus honorum).

2) Separation of powers

  • Separation of powers requires the citizens to elect directly the executive officers, the members of legislatures and the judges, so that each power may derive its legitimacy directly from the citizens, not from the other powers.





3) Direct democracy

  • Direct democracy means not only the right of citizens to elect public officials, but also the right to vote on legislation on a regular basis – not sporadically when public officials so decide – and the right to participate in the dispensation of justice as judges and members of juries.




Constitution of the Res Populi Club

  • The Constitution of the Club is based on those of the American Political Clubs.
  • It blends elements of the constitution of the Roman republic (annual rotation of executive officers), the American republic (separation of powers) and the Swiss republic (direct democracy).
  • It guarantees gender equality at 50% in the performance of Club offices.

Purpose of the Club

The purpose of the Club is to promote the values and organizational principles of classical republicanism both in the public sphere and among private organizations by:

  1. encouraging the participation of its members in formulating the priorities, policies and programs of the Club;
  2. monitoring the policies, programs and legislation implemented by public authorities, as a basis for developing reform proposals and conducting research on relevant subjects;
  3. proposing reforms in the constitutions and statutes of public and private organizations;
  4. conducting research and publishing reports and articles on relevant subjects;
  5. organizing public fora and events to present the priorities, policies, programs, reform proposals and publications of the Club;
  6. raising funds for implementation of Club activities;
  7. recruiting new members for the Club;
  8. mobilizing the community, including those who may not have previously participated in the political process, to implement the priorities, policies and reform proposals of the Club;
  9. endorsing candidates for public office who are committed to furthering the priorities, policies and reform proposals of the Club;
  10. securing the adoption of such priorities, policies and reform proposals by public authorities;
  11. cooperating with like-minded organizations in achieving common goals.


  • Action 1: promote the formula of liberty in each country as a new way of organization for villages, cities, regions and the state, as well as for private organizations. Action 1 PDF
  • Action 2: propose the international city-state as an alternative status for specific cities (cities whose history, ethnic composition or geographical location makes them suitable for such status) and develop a plan for the integration of nation states and international city-states into an international state. Action 2 PDF
  • Action 3: develop an economic model based on perfect competition.